Saturday, March 30, 2013

Depleted Uranium in fracking perf-guns

UPDATE: Several readers have written to me saying this is in-fact proof of nothing.  TRUE.   However, it is strong circumstantial evidence. Certainly, Hallibuton and others have performed trial experiments. They must have to support the patents. But Where? In PA? TX? OK? CO? Where is the paper trail? NRC and DOT both should issue these permits, but upon FOIL both responded, "no such records exist". Something doesn't smell right.  If this is going on, and I suspect it is, then have the toxic effects of this been studied anywhere? 

This is only the beginning of an investigation....


Earliest article I can find on the subject (2007):
http://brianforsantafe.blogspot.com/2007/11/depleted-uranium-and-oil-drilling-in.html

Dick Cheney connection to DU (Mr. Halliburton Loophole):
http://www.notinkansas.us/du_1.html


SEE ALSO: http://williamahuston.blogspot.com/2013/07/halliburtonschlumberger-radiation.html

We know there are several sources of radiation from HVHF operations.

1) NORMS from deep underground coming up
2) Radioactive rods used for well-logging. See: http://stateimpact.npr.org/texas/2012/09/19/where-is-the-radioactive-rod-how-halliburton-lost-a-tiny-fracking-tool/

and this one, which is not often talked about:

3) Depleted Uranium used in Perf Guns

"wire line" perf gun



DU makes an ideal material for fracking perf-guns, for the same reasons why
it makes an ideal material for an anti-tank weapon, because DU is very hard,
and burns with extreme heat.

See: Invisible War: Depleted Uranium and the politics of radiation
 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=psfK8ijrzyc
(Watch about the first 10 min to learn about the properties of DU)

After the horizontal leg of a HVHHF well is drilled, cased, and cemented,
the final step before fracking is to lower in a "perf gun", which is loaded
with some of the highest explosives developed, with a blast pressure on
the order of 10 million PSI.

These extreme pressures are necessary because the hydostatic pressure at 7,000' is already ~10k 3,500 psi. So not only this must be overcome, but also the yield pressure of steel pipe:

http://williamahuston.blogspot.com/2013/01/fracking-perf-gun-explosion-in-tx-2.html

I first heard rumors about DU being used in Perf Guns several years ago,
but couldn't find proof at the time.

Here's the proof of a connection. That it's at least been on Halliburton's mind, if not already been in trials. Where? Pennsylvania maybe? Has anyone looked at the possible consequences to living beings of this application?

Again: this is only the beginning of an inquiry... stay tuned...




Patent US 2011/0000669 A1 Pub. Date: Jan. 6, 2011
HALLIBURTON ENERGY SERVICES, INC., Carrollton, TX (US)

http://www.google.com/patents?id=EYLwAAAAEBAJ&printsec=abstract&zoom=4#v=onepage&q&f=false

A perforating gun assembly for use in a wellbore. The perforating
gun assembly includes a carrier gun body and a charge
holder disposed within the carrier gun body. A plurality of
shaped charges are supported within the carrier gun body. A
secondary pressure generator is operably associated with at
least one of the shaped charges. The secondary pressure generator
optimizes the wellbore pressure regime immediately
after detonation of the shaped charges by controlling the
dynamic underbalance created by the empty gun chambers to
prevent excessive dynamic underbalance which may detrimentally
effect the perforating operation.

...



[0013] In one embodiment, the shaped charge component
may be formed from or may contain a reactive material such
as a pyrophoric material, a combustible material, a Mixed
Rare Earth (MRE) alloy or the like including, but not limited
to, zinc, aluminum, bismuth, tin, calcium, cerium, cesium,
hafnium, iridium, lead, lithium, palladium, potassium,
sodium, magnesium, titanium, zirconium, cobalt, chromium,
iron, nickel, tantalum, depleted uranium, mischmetal or the
like or combination, alloys, carbides or hydrides of these
materials. In certain embodiments, the shaped charge component
may be formed from the above mentioned materials in
various powdered metal blends. These powdered metals may
also be mixed with oxidizers to form exothermic pyrotechnic
compositions, such as thermites. The oxidizers may include,
but are not limited to, boron(III) oxide, silicon(IV) oxide,
chromium(III) oxide, manganese(IV) oxide, iron(III) oxide,
iron(II, III) oxide, copper(II) oxide, lead(II, III, IV) oxide and
the like. The thermites may also contain fluorine compounds
as additives, such as Teflon. The thermites may include nanothermites
in which the reacting constituents are nanoparticles.

...

[0032] The secondary pressure generators may be formed
as all or a part of a charge case such as charge case 128
including as a coating on the charge case, a liner such as liner
130 or the explosive within a shaped charge such as shaped
charge 126. Preferably, the secondary pressure generators are
formed from a reactive material such as a pyrophoric materials,
a combustible material, a Mixed Rare Earth (MRE)
alloy or the like including, but not limited to, zinc, aluminum,
bismuth, tin, calcium, cerium, cesium, hafnium, iridium,
lead, lithium, palladium, potassium, sodium, magnesium,
titanium, zirconium, cobalt, chromium, iron, nickel, tantalum,
depleted uranium, mischmetal or the like or combination,
alloys, carbides or hydrides of these materials. In certain
embodiments, the secondary pressure generators may be
formed from the above mentioned materials in various powdered
metal blends. These powdered metals may also be
mixed with oxidizers to form exothermic pyrotechnic compositions,
such as thermites. The oxidizers may include, but
are not limited to, boron(III) oxide, silicon(IV) oxide, chromium(
III) oxide, manganese(IV) oxide, iron(III) oxide, iron
(II, III) oxide, copper(II) oxide, lead(II, III, IV) oxide and the
like. The thermites may also contain fluorine compounds as
additives, such as Teflon. The thermites may include nanothermites
in which the reacting constituents are nanoparticles.
The reaction generated by the secondary pressure generators
may manifest itself through a thermal effect, a
pressure effect or both. In either case, the reaction causes an
increase in the pressure within perforating gun 100, the near
well bore region or both which counteracts the forces created
by the dynamic underbalance condition in the well bore.

...

What is claimed is:
1. A perforating gun assembly for use in a wellbore, the
perforating gun assembly comprising:
a carrier gun body;
a charge holder disposed within the carrier gun body;
a plurality of shaped charges supported within the carrier
gun body; and
a secondary pressure generator operably associated with at
least one of the shaped charges.
2. The perforating gun assembly as recited in claim 1
wherein the secondary pressure generator further comprises a
reactive material.
3. The perforating gun assembly as recited in claim 1
wherein the secondary pressure generator is selected from the
group consisting of zinc, aluminum, bismuth, tin, calcium,
cerium, cesium, hafnium, iridium, lead, lithium, palladium,
potassium, sodium, magnesium, titanium, zirconium, cobalt,
chromium, iron, nickel, tantalum, depleted uranium and combination,
alloys, carbides and hydrides of these materials.
 ...


24. The wellbore pressure control assembly as recited in
claim 21 wherein the secondary pressure generator is selected
from the group consisting of zinc, aluminum, bismuth, tin,
calcium, cerium, cesium, hafnium, iridium, lead, lithium,
palladium, potassium, sodium, magnesium, titanium, zirconium,
cobalt, chromium, iron, nickel, tantalum, depleted uranium
and combination, alloys, carbides and hydrides of these
materials.








UPDATE April 8 2013: PA DEP is beginning to study radiation hazards related to Marcellus Shale drilling.
As I have reported, there is evidence to suggest that the O+G industry is using Depleted Uranium in their Perf-Guns (I found the Halliburton Patent, and it is also an ideal material for this application)
http://williamahuston.blogspot.com/2013/03/finally-proof-of-use-depleted-uranium.html

The one tracer which will positively ID the use of DU is U-236
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Depleted_uranium
However, U-236 is not being tested for in the PA DEP study:
http://www.nofrackingway.us/2013/04/06/pa-dep-gets-radioactive/

Please call PA DEP and insist that they include U-236 in their radiation study
so we can find out of the industry is using DU in their perf guns in PA:

Colleen Connolly,
Department of Environmental Protection Northeast Regional Office


(Or use any other contact at PA DEP you might have)

--
--
May you, and all beings
be happy and free from suffering :)
-- ancient Buddhist Prayer (Metta)

17 comments:

Scott Cannon said...

Good job Bill!!!

Steven Todd said...

Great work Bill. Keep on this investigation, and let us know when they start using it.

Bill Huston said...

They *may* already be using it. Who knows? The industry is protected with so much secrecy.

MR. Hart said...

Bill,
you state-
"These extreme pressures are necessary because the hydostatic pressure at 7,000' is already ~10k psi."
Could you please share what fluid the companies are using to displace the cement with?
Once the cement is displaced (forced up the outside of the casing) the hydrostatic pressure within the casing will be determined by the density of the fluid used to displace the cement from the inside of the casing.
According to my figures, the hydrostatic pressure at 7000' (using the most common fluid to displace the cement from the inside of the casing,fresh water)is only 3035 psi.
Clearly I'm wrong, could you please show me where my calculations are off?
I'm really curious as to what fluid they might be using to create the hydrostatic pressures you indicate.
Thank you for helping me to understand this complex issue.

Bill Huston said...

MR. Hart: I have no idea about casing cement.

I'm talking about the pressure outside the casing. It seems to me this pressure must be overcome, in addition to the yield pressure of the casing itself.

But I just ran some calculations, and I stand corrected. I get ~3500 psi @ 7,000' of water, but your number is close enough. Looks like 1000 atm (15,000 psi) occurs at the deepest part of the ocean, Marianas Trench, 36,000'.

So my initial estimate was incorrect by 5x. I don't think this invalidates the basic premise of what I am presenting here. Thanks for the correction. -- BH

RJMSluiter said...

yes and here to !!!

Wrecking the Earth: Fracking has grave radiation risks few talk about
Christopher Busby is an expert on the health effects of ionizing radiation and Scientific Secretary of the European Committee on Radiation Risk.

http://rt.com/op-edge/fracking-radioactive-uranium-danger-ecology-057/

RJMSluiter said...

yes and here to !!!

Wrecking the Earth: Fracking has grave radiation risks few talk about
Christopher Busby is an expert on the health effects of ionizing radiation and Scientific Secretary of the European Committee on Radiation Risk.

http://rt.com/op-edge/fracking-radioactive-uranium-danger-ecology-057/

RJMSluiter said...

yes and here to !!!

Wrecking the Earth: Fracking has grave radiation risks few talk about
Christopher Busby is an expert on the health effects of ionizing radiation and Scientific Secretary of the European Committee on Radiation Risk.

http://rt.com/op-edge/fracking-radioactive-uranium-danger-ecology-057/

RJMSluiter said...

yes and here to !!!

Wrecking the Earth: Fracking has grave radiation risks few talk about
Christopher Busby is an expert on the health effects of ionizing radiation and Scientific Secretary of the European Committee on Radiation Risk.

http://rt.com/op-edge/fracking-radioactive-uranium-danger-ecology-057/

RJMSluiter said...

yes and here to !!!

Wrecking the Earth: Fracking has grave radiation risks few talk about
Christopher Busby is an expert on the health effects of ionizing radiation and Scientific Secretary of the European Committee on Radiation Risk.

http://rt.com/op-edge/fracking-radioactive-uranium-danger-ecology-057/

Bob said...

I called the Pa DEP, Spoke with one of the agents about their study of radiation in frack pits. I asked if they would include in the study u-236 DU . The study is about Ten norm. It is for the industry at their request. I asked about the Perf gun used in fracking. He never heard of it. I explained what the Halliburton Patient said and about the flaring of atomized particles. Now he was concerned. Also the burning of waste at night .Night time is when all industries pollute. Lets all call and ask questions.

jtsaad said...

I load, build, run and shoot perf guns. For one, they aren't "fracking perf guns," they are used on every standard cased and cemented well and have been since the 1920s ish if my memory serves me. They do not contain uranium and are not radioactive. It's just explosive shaped charged to punch holes through pipe and cement. I handle them every day and know for a fact they are not radioactive. That patent is for a stim gun, not a perf gun. And they still aren't radioactive. Also, the radioactive logging sources are to measure rock properties. Like a downhole x-Ray. The radiation doesn't stay downhole. And don't forget that some rock formations down there are naturally radioactive and may naturally contain radiation. It's highly tested, studied, measured, and made sure to be safe if anything comes to surface

jtsaad said...

Long story short, I build, transport, load, arm, run, and shoot perf guns. They don't have uranium in them. And they aren't fracking tools. They are used whether or not a well is fracked. They punch holes about 30 inches deep and .5 inches across through pipe, cement and rock. They aren't as big as you think. The charges are like a shot glass and imperceptible on surface without high tech seismic tools

Bill Huston said...

jtsaad: It is a fact there are over 700 patents for using DU in the shaped charge for perf guns. I call them "fracking perf guns" because it is part of the fracking process. A well cannot be hydraulically fractured unless the casing has been perforated, do you agree?

You say you "know for a fact" they are not radioactive. How do you know this? Have you ever attempted to measure the radiation from the shaped charges? I would be interested in the results.

To me, I find it DAMN ODD that the industry has 700+ patents on a technology which no one admits to being used in the field. A company only patents a technology because they plan on using it to make money, and they want to protect their investment from competitors.

Patricia Hagaman said...

anyone with experience working with cement knows the reliability issue with temps and bonding to other cement and ground materials. Very unregulated and impossible to test hardness and strength.

fourmileroad1 said...

I must agree with jtsaad's comments above. It is incorrect to refer to perforation guns as "fracking" perf guns. For decades, including the most recent, exactly the same types of perforation guns have been used on hundreds of thousands of oil and natural gas wells that were never fracture stimulated. In most cases production casing on every well is perforated, whether fracture stimulation, or a gravel-pack, or a different type of stimulation is employed. None of the many types of wells I have drilled or completed across the country employed any DU in the perforating charges - this can be determined from looking at the MSDS (material safety data sheets) required to be delivered to the well location when the perf guns arrive. These MSDS are readily available, by the way.

Most likely, the patent you refer to includes every possible formulation of incendiary in an attempt to preclude other companies from copying designs, etc.... I would think this is done routinely in the patenting process, regardless of industry. Moreover, inclusion of every variation of charge formulation probably does more to PREVENT the use of DU in perforating by preventing other companies from marketing variants of this design that might actually employ DU for perforating.

Cheers...

Dan Hazelton said...

well it looks like uranium to me! http://www.google.com/patents/EP2282003A2